Distinct Patterns of Everyday Executive Function Problems Distinguish Children With Tourette Syndrome From Children With ADHD or Autism Spectrum Disorders
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionJournal of Attention Disorders. 2017, 21 (10), 811-823. 10.1177/1087054714550336
Objective: The aim is to investigate the everyday executive function (EF) in children with Tourette syndrome (TS), Inattentive or Combined presentations of ADHD (ADHD-I/ADHD-C), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and typically developing children (TDC). Method: Nineteen TS, 33 ADHD-C, 43 ADHD-I, 34 ASD, and 50 TDC participated (8-17 years). Parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Results: TS, ADHD-C, ADHD-I, or ASD were rated with significantly more regulation problems on all scales compared with TDC. Considerable overlap of symptoms between clinical groups made differentiation difficult on individual scales. Scale configurations showed children with TS to have more problems with emotional control (EC) than cognitive flexibility in relation to children with ASD, more problems with EC than inhibitory control in relation to ADHD-C, and more problems with EC than planning/organizing in relation to ADHD-I. Conclusion: Paired BRIEF scales dissociated EF problems in children with TS from children with ADHD-C, ADHD-I, or ASD. Clinical relevance is discussed.