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dc.contributor.authorSteen, Cathrine W.
dc.contributor.authorSöderström, Kerstin
dc.contributor.authorStensrud, Bjørn
dc.contributor.authorNylund, Inger Beate
dc.contributor.authorSiqveland, Johan
dc.identifier.citationBMC Medical Education. 2024, .en_US
dc.description.abstractBackground: Virtual reality (VR) training can enhance health professionals' learning. However, there are ambiguous findings on the effectiveness of VR as an educational tool in mental health. We therefore reviewed the existing literature on the effectiveness of VR training on health professionals' knowledge, skills, and attitudes in assessing and treating patients with mental health disorders. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO (via Ovid), the Cochrane Library, ERIC, CINAHL (on EBSCOhost), Web of Science Core Collection, and the Scopus database for studies published from January 1985 to July 2023. We included all studies evaluating the effect of VR training interventions on attitudes, knowledge, and skills pertinent to the assessment and treatment of mental health disorders and published in English or Scandinavian languages. The quality of the evidence in randomized controlled trials was assessed with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool 2.0. For non-randomized studies, we assessed the quality of the studies with the ROBINS-I tool. Results: Of 4170 unique records identified, eight studies were eligible. The four randomized controlled trials were assessed as having some concern or a high risk of overall bias. The four non-randomized studies were assessed as having a moderate to serious overall risk of bias. Of the eight included studies, four used a virtual standardized patient design to simulate training situations, two studies used interactive patient scenario training designs, while two studies used a virtual patient game design. The results suggest that VR training interventions can promote knowledge and skills acquisition. Conclusions: The findings indicate that VR interventions can effectively train health care personnel to acquire knowledge and skills in the assessment and treatment of mental health disorders. However, study heterogeneity, prevalence of small sample sizes, and many studies with a high or serious risk of bias suggest an uncertain evidence base. Future research on the effectiveness of VR training should include assessment of immersive VR training designs and a focus on more robust studies with larger sample sizes. Trial registration: This review was pre-registered in the Open Science Framework register with the ID-number Z8EDK. Keywords: Clinical skills; Health care professionals; Health care students; Mental health; Systematic review; Training; Virtual reality.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipOpen access funding provided by Inland Norway University Of Applied Sciences The study forms a part of a collaborative PhD project funded by South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority through Innlandet Hospital Trust and the Inland University of Applied Sciences.en_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.subjectHealth care professionalsen_US
dc.subjectMental health;en_US
dc.subjectSystematic review;en_US
dc.subjectVirtual reality;en_US
dc.titleThe effectiveness of virtual reality training on knowledge, skills and attitudes of health care professionals and students in assessing and treating mental health disorders: a systematic reviewen_US
dc.title.alternativeThe effectiveness of virtual reality training on knowledge, skills and attitudes of health care professionals and students in assessing and treating mental health disorders: a systematic reviewen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.rights.holder© 2024. The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.en_US
dc.source.journalBMC Medical Educationen_US

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Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal