Acute effects of post-absorptive and postprandial moderate exercise on markers of inflammation in hyperglycemic individuals
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology. 2017, 117 (4), 1-8. 10.1007/s00421-017-3576-2
Abstract Purpose Systemic inflammation is involved in the development of several diseases, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. It is known that vigorous exercise affects systemic inflammation, but less is known about exercise at lower intensities. Hyperglycemia can also entail pro-inflammatory responses; however, postprandial hyperglycemia is blunted if the meal is followed by exercise. Hypotheses were: (1) moderate physical exercise acutely affects levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) in hyperglycemic individuals and (2) the effect depends on whether the activity is performed in a post-absorptive or postprandial state. Methods Twelve participants diagnosed with hyperglycemia, but not using anti-diabetic medication, underwent three test days in a randomized cross-over study; 1 control day without exercise, 1 day with 60 min of treadmill walking ending 30 min before breakfast, and 1 day with an identical bout of activity 30 min after the start of breakfast. Food intake was strictly standardized and venous blood for CRP, and sVCAM-1 analysis was sampled at standardized timepoints during the first 3.5 h after breakfast and once 24 h later. Results Merged data from the two exercise days showed that sVCAM-1 increased from baseline (4 ± 16 ng/mL) compared to the control condition (−28 ± 47 ng/mL, ES = 0.7, p = 0.024). There was no statistically significant difference in changes in sVCAM-1 levels between the two exercise test days. Exercise did not affect CRP values. Conclusion Moderate exercise increases sVCAM-1 in hyperglycemic individuals, whereas it does not affect CRP.